Cover raw cashews with boiling water and let soak while you cook.
Soak tteok in a bowl of cool water and use your hands to gently break up any pieces stuck together. Set aside and let soak while you prepare the base of the dish.
In a heavy bottomed saucepan, add oil. Once hot, add bay leaf and cumin seeds and toast for 1 minute, or until fragrant, stirring with a spatula. Next add onions and sauté until translucent and tender, about 2-3 minutes. Add jalapeno, garlic and ginger and sauté for another minute.
Add coriander, garam masala, kashmiri chili, gochugaru and turmeric. Cook, stirring frequently, for 2-3 minutes. Then add tomato paste and cook down for about 2-3 minutes, until it has darkened in color.
Deglaze with vegetable broth, using your spatula to scrape any browned bits off of the bottom of the pan.
Add tteok pieces and bring the mixture to a simmer. Let simmer for about 10 minutes, stirring occasionally, until the tteok is tender and cooked through. Remove from heat.
Drain cashews and add to a blender with filtered water. Blend until completely smooth and you end up with a rich cream. Add the cream to the pan, stir to incorporate and season with salt and pepper, to taste. Finish with fresh lime juice, to taste.